20+ difference between cpi and gdp deflator (explained)

Some key distinctions can be made between the consumer price index and the GDP deflator. Nevertheless, both may be used to gauge price inflation and provide insight into a country’s economic situation.

The locally produced items are taken into account by the GDP deflator. It doesn’t care about imported articles, and the prices of all commodities, including services, are reflected in them. 

The GDP deflator is recalculated every quarter, and its weights might shift. All final products and services produced inside the boundaries of a nation in a given time are included in GDP, an acronym for gross domestic product.

Nominal GDP and real GDP are the two forms of GDP. The GDP deflator is the ratio of the two variables. The cpi measures inflation by indicating the cost of a typical assortment of goods consumers purchases. 

Comparison Between CPI and GDP Deflator

ParameterCPIGDP Deflator
What it isWhen looking at how much consumer products have gone up or down in price over a certain period, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is an important statistic.Although it is a measure of the price level, the GDP deflator places its primary focus on all newly created final items and services inside an economy.
What it measuresA CPI is used to measure the price of different products and goods which a customer has purchased.A GDP Deflator is applied to various products and good prices to get an accurate reading.
Inclusive ofIt includes the price of all the products irrespective of where they have been produced.It only includes the price of the goods which have been manufactured domestically.
AdvantageOne of its advantages is that it assigns fixed weights to the prices of different products.Unlike CPI, it does not use fixed weights. It instead uses changing weights for different products.
difference between cpi vs gdp deflator

Major Difference Between CPI And GDP Deflator

what exactly is cpi?

The consumer price index (cpi) is a metric that analyzes the weighted average price of a consumer goods and services basket.

These products and services include food, transportation, and medical care. To determine it, we take the price changes for each item in the predefined basket of commodities and then take the average of those changes. 

The changes in the cpi are utilized to determine how much the living expense has increased or decreased. The consumer price index (cpi) is one of the indicators of inflation and deflation used most often.

It is possible to contrast it with the producer price index (PPI), which, rather than considering the prices paid by consumers, considers the prices paid by companies for their inputs.

key difference: cPI

  • The consumer price index (cpi) measures the changes that occur over time in the overall price level of household consumer products.
  • When comparing prices and measuring the level of inflation, the cpi uses a standard basket.
  • It incorporates the cost of each and every product, independent of the location where they were manufactured.
features of cpi

What Exactly Is GDPDeflator?

A country’s entire production of goods and services is called its gross domestic product (GDP). Despite this, the measure doesn’t consider inflation or increasing prices when calculating GDP growth or decline.

By defining a base year and comparing current prices to prices in the base year, the GDP price deflator shows the influence of price changes on GDP. 

GDP price deflator measures the degree to which changes in the price level influence changes in GDP. Tracking prices paid by firms, governments, and consumers indicate changes in the economy’s price level.

Nominal GDP is a common way to measure a country’s total production in whole dollars. It’s a good idea to understand how changes in pricing might affect GDP numbers from year to year before diving into the GDP price deflator.

key difference: GDP deflator

  • The GDP deflator measures the price level, although it primarily emphasizes all newly generated final products and services inside an economy.
  • The GDP deflator compares the price of a product that is presently being produced to the cost of that product in the base year.
  • The cost of things that have been produced locally is the only thing that is considered here.
features of gdp deflator

Contrast Between CPI and GDP Deflator


  • Cpi- the consumer price index (cpi) is a statistic that evaluates the adjusted average cost of a consumer goods and services bundle.

    These goods and services consist of things like food, travel, and medical care, among other things.
  • GDP deflator- the total amount of products and services produced inside a nation is measured by what is known as its “gross domestic product” (GDP).

    When estimating an increase or decrease in GDP, the metric in question does not consider inflation or rising prices.

Rate depiction: 

  • Cpi– the consumer price index is a measurement that determines the overall price level of all products and services that people within the economy purchase. The consumer price index does not consider any changes in the prices of exported items.

    In addition to this, the cpi only takes into consideration the prices of consumer products. Therefore it only reflects a small portion of the total amount of domestically produced goods and services.
  • GDP deflator- the GDP deflator is a metric that gauges the overall price level of all products and services produced within a country. This indicates that the GDP deflator does not consider fluctuations in the prices of imported items.

Rate measurement: 

  • Cpi– the consumer price index (cpi) compares prices to a standard basket of goods and services. The consumer price index (cpi) calculation requires regular revisions to the market basket data.

    This might result in different conclusions being drawn if the prices of the items represented by the two indicators do not fluctuate in proportion to one another.
  • GDP deflator- the GDP deflator analyzes each and every item and service that is presently being produced.

    As a direct consequence, the items used in the computation of the GDP deflator are subject to ongoing alteration. In other words, the two indicators may react differently when some commodities’ prices increase or decrease than the prices of other things.

Cost association:

  • Cpi- regardless of the location at which a product was manufactured, all of the costs connected with that product are accounted for.
  • GDP deflator– the only element considered is the price at which things produced locally may be purchased.

frequently asked questions (faqs)

q1. what is meant by the term inflation?

The loss of buying power over time is a common symptom of inflation. Over time, the average price rise of a given basket of goods and services might show the pace at which buying power is eroding.

q2. what is the meaning of the price index?

A price index (pi) is a means to track the rise and fall of prices over a certain time period. Finding out how much inflation there is may be done in several ways, or deflation.

In this post, we’ll take a look at a few ways to accomplish so. The federal reserve uses inflation as one of its primary indicators to determine interest rates.

q3. what is GDP, and what are its features?

A nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) is measured in terms of the total monetary worth or market value of all the completed products and services produced within the boundaries of that nation over a certain period of time.

It is a wide measure of total domestic output, which allows it to operate as an all-encompassing scorecard of the economic health of a specific nation.

q4. what is meant by the term deflation?

A broad fall in prices for goods and services is what economists refer to as deflation. Deflation is often related to reducing the quantity of money and credit in an economy.

Deflation is characterized by a gradual increase in the value of one currency relative to another over a period of time.

q5. what is the use of inflation accounting?

For multinational firms, inflation accounting is a particular approach that considers the influence of rising or falling prices of commodities in different locations of the globe on their reported statistics.

Inflationary conditions need adjustments to financial statements based on price indexes rather than depending only on a cost accounting basis. The term “price level accounting” is also used to describe this process.

q6. what is meant by seasonally adjusted data?

A time series that is monthly or quarterly and has been adjusted seasonally is called a seasonally adjusted time series.

This kind of time series has had the impact of seasonal and calendar effects removed from it. The statistics have been seasonally adjusted so that valid comparisons may be made across different time periods and their respective economic circumstances.

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